1. American Indian peoples were not simply passive, tragic victims of colonization. Throughout the history of colonial encounters, they continued to pursue their own goals as independent nations. Discuss Native American alliance formation, both with various European nations and other Native nations, from 1492 through the Civil War. Use specific Indian nations and specific historical events to support your answer, and don’t forget to include support from primary documents. What reasons did Native peoples have for making and breaking alliances?
What factors were out of their control? How did the relative—and often shifting—power balance between Native Americans and Europeans affect their interactions? Ending with the example of the Creek nation during the Civil War, what were some of the consequences of these strategic decisions, both positive and negative?
2. Colin Calloway opens his third chapter with the following statement: “Colonial America was a new world for Europeans and Indians alike” (152). Provide evidence to support Calloway’s claim from lecture, the primary documents, Calloway’s text, and David Chang’s monograph. Consider in depth the case of the Creek nation after the American Revolution. How did Creeks continue to adapt to changes including their forced removal from their homeland to Oklahoma? What challenges did such changes create within the Creek nation? How did the Creek nation, which still exists today, survive those changes?
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