Case Study (Chad: Physical training and Fitness)


Case Study (Chad: Physical training and Fitness


            In golf, the success of the golfer is determined by the generation of golf swing power. This determines the distance and usually it is determined by clubhead speed. This power generation is influenced greatly by rational biomechanics. Thus, aspects that must always be evaluated include are the relative and absolute upper-torso and pelvic rotation. Thus a good golfer should exhibit superior golf swing power. This requires a balance in terms of the nutritional needs and physical exercise. Other key contributing factors to the success of any golfer is the body movement pattern and would play a great role in determining the displacement of golf ball.

The coordination of body, equipment and technique used during training is therefore very important and must be harmonized. In golfing, the success of any golfer would heavily depend on the optimization of the movement potential. Thus aspects of movement capabilities and limitations of the golfer should always be evaluated for the purposes of enhancing movement potential. In general view, the golfer physicality is very vital for the achievement of success in the golfing game, thus competitive golfing would call for physically training for the purposes of ensuring that there is an optimum state before the competition. The enhancement of the physical components of the game must be hinged on the ensuring good golf swing mechanics. In this therefore, personal health and nutritional aspects must be given consideration and keen attention.

In the light of our case study (Chad), the information provided would help in determining Body Mass Index (BMI), Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) and the target heart rate which are vital importance in coming up with the training regime and nutritional approaches that would fit the client in question (Chad).  This will also play great role in the manipulation of training aspects such as the training volume and intensity.

From the data provided with regards to the client’s weight (180 pounds), resting heart rate (80bpm) and body fat (20%), Body  mass Index (BMI) of the client was determined to be 23.2 (180/(74*74)=0.0338*704.5) and the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) was 1866 (1.0*(180/2.2)*24=1964, Lean factor 2 = .95, 1964 * .95 = 1866). The client’s target heart rate using Karvonen formula at 60% was 131 (220-55-80=85*.6+80) and at 80% it was 148 (220-55-80=85*.8+80). This would be vital in determining the amount of calories required to be consumed for the purpose of maintaining a particular body weight. As indicated by the Body Mass Index, Chad was not obese and it required is the maintenance of the body weight appropriate for the golfing game. Other aspects of the nutritional approach would also be guided by this information on the Basal Metabolic Rate, Body Mass Index.

Fitness tests or methods of evaluation

The key factors that determine a good golfer are the swing power and optimized movement. These and greatly determined by the golfer’s physicality and some aspects of the physiology such as the characteristics of the limb, the activation patterns of muscles, mobility, coordination, flexibility, strength, muscle balance and symmetry. All these combined will greatly influence the performance of a golfer. This is because they play a great role in controlling static characteristics of posture and general body movement. The client will not be evaluated based on the aerobic capacity since aerobic is not expected to be incorporated into the training or exercise regime. Any instances where aerobics is included in the exercise, VO2max baseline will be obtained. Because golfing involves alternating explosions of strength and followed by period rest which are long, it would not be necessary to obtain the levels of lactic acid since does not contribute to outcome in any way.  Key physical factors to golfing that will be evaluated include the strength of the grip, arm and shoulder strength, upper and lower back strength, upper leg strength.

Because the client is barely 12 weeks to be in good shape for golfing, the exercise approach will be basic and more sports oriented. Basic and sports specific exercises will be followed by the listing of muscle groups (Grip strength/Forearms; measure with a manometer) which is a one-rep maximum movement/1-RM). This will be used to determine baseline strength and for evaluation. Wrist curls, reverse Wrist curls and grippers will be used. 1-RM will be done for the following exercises, Military press, shoulder shrugs, Upper arms triceps extension, biceps curls, and shoulder Horn for external rotators which is very vital for golfers. The same exercise will be used at the end of the 12 weeks and may also be changed after 12 weeks so that it may be possible to enter the second meso-cycle. Shoulder Horn would be specifically for the purpose of isolating and strengthening external rotators. It involves bending of the elbow at 90 degrees and staying in one position accompanied by pivotal of the hand and forearm backward (Thompson, Cobb & Blackwell, 2007).

The exercises (exercise opposing muscle groups) are very vital for weight training. The result of not doing these exercises will be over-training of one muscle group exposing the athlete to injury risk. This is major reason of doing upper arm training. Chad is also engaged in reverse wrist curls. In Upper back, lat pulldowns and opposing muscle group bench press will be done. In lower back, dead lift, and opposing muscle group crunches will be done. In upper leg, leg extensions, leg curls and squats will be done. To avoid unbalancing of lower legs, lower leg extension will be done. This may does not hold importance in golfing, but is it necessary for the purposes of avoiding shin splints, Achilles tendon problems, and plantar fasciitis. Because it is natural for most human being to have over-developed posterior leg muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus), there is a need to exercise the anterior tibialis muscles too. This can be done by Chad by simply lifting cloth bags filled with sand or purchasing a bar which is T-shaped which uses dorsiflexion movement with weights.

The rational

            In knee extensions, the rational will be to establish the actual length of the hamstring. Key tools that will be used are the Goniometer and exercise mat. Measurements will be based on the angle value of 135o. Anything below 135o will be regarded as a fail and anything above 135o will be regarded as a pass. With regards to lower back, the rational will be to evaluate the range of motion and the stability of the lower back of the athlete. More specifically, Thomas test will be carried out to help in detection of the hip flexion contractures and range of motion in the extension (Thompson, Cobb & Blackwell, 2007).  Lower back strength and stability are very vital in reduction of the back pain incidences. In the light of injury and performance, core stability test will be conducted. Vertical jumps may also be used to determine the power of the athlete. The squatting will be used basically to because golfing involves lifting and bending movement and because it plays great role in preventing injury. The squatting action will be able to show the strength and reduction of the risk of injury.

Test Pass measurement Assessed characteristic Duration of assessment Amount ($)
Vertical Jump >= 35cm for males

>= 26cm for females

Lower body power 2 minute 30
Repetition Squat Assessment 20 complete and proper squats Strength and stability during squatting action 2 minutes 30
Push Up Test >= 10 reps for males

>= 8 reps (modified) for females

Upper body strength endurance 3 minutes 30
Thomas Test To parallel or below Range of motion around the hip 3 minutes 20
Total 110


12-week periodized training program


            In the light of the client in question (Chad), the emphasis will be given to low volume and high intensity since the period is short and because of the fact that golfing is an individual game as opposed to a group game. The training period will be divided into two significant phases (first 6 weeks and the last 6 weeks). The mesocycle will be characterized by change in the intensity and volume of training. In the preparatory phase, the volume will be moderate and the intensity will be low. This is basically because of the fact that golfing does not require intense engagement as compared to training of power athletes. The aim here would be to enhance the mass of the muscle and its ability to endure (This is quite vital because of the age of Chad).

At the next phase (strength and power phase) (Thompson, Cobb & Blackwell, 2007), the intensity will be enhanced while the volume of the training will be lowed as we move to the peak phase which is characterized more reduction in volume but increased intensity. Nonetheless, because of short time available for the training, the intensity will be increased farther and the volume will be lowered. This will work for the advantage of maximizing performance before the actually engagement in golfing. Chad will be very much successful with regards to obtaining fitness with this approach. With regards to training loading, session-RPE method will be used because of the fact that is very simple measure and also to interpret.


Week 1-2:++ Monday: Lat Pulldowns; 10-15 reps, 1-3 sets. Bench Press; 10-15 reps, 1- 3 sets.Dead Lift; 10-15 reps, 1- 3sets, Crunches: 10-15 resps, 1-3 sets ++ Tuesday: Leg Extensions: 12-16 reps, 1-3 sets. Leg Curls: 12-16 reps, 1-3 sets. Squats: 12-16 reps, 1-3 sets Aerobic: Run minutes. ++ Wed: Rest ++Thursday: do like Monday ++Friday: do like Tuesday ++ Sat : rest ++ SUn: Rest Week 3-4 (12-16reps,2-3 sets) ; week 5-6(8-10 reps, 4 sets); week 7-12(6-8 reps,5-6 sets) these weeks do the same week 1-2

Nutritional strategies and supplement recommendations


In golfing, it has been established that spend most time in moderate intensity exercise (82 minutes at around 50-75 %) which is very similar to the case of Chad. Each round of golfing would be about 2300 of calories. A round in golf is about 223 minutes and the minimum walking distance of the player is about 9050 meters Because of Chad’s BMI, BMR and body fat, he will be in need of high carbohydrate which will be very vital in maximizing the stores of glycogen in the body. The diet should also be low in fibre and fat to help in emptying of the gastric and to sort problems related to the distress of gastrointestinal. This is the best pre golfing nutrition. The pre exercise will also demand high a mounts of carbohydrates compared to proteins (Thompson, Cobb & Blackwell, 2007).

Nutritional recommendations 

                Before each and every single work-out, ingest a whey protein shake of 25gms of protein and 5 grams of cretin and 140 to 350 g of carbohydrates. Within 45 minutes post-workout, ingest another 25gms of protein as a protein shake but mix it into grape juice which helps the amino acids get into the muscles (via insulin). This is mandatory. Consume a large meal within 2 hours of every workout, including aerobics. Breakfasts should be a combination of protein (for example eggs) and some fruit to replenish muscle and liver glycogen stores. Ingest a whey protein shake at bedtime the night of each workout (Thompson, Cobb & Blackwell, 2007). There are a number of supplements that would also be vital to Chad’s case. These include: fish oil, 1 capsule per day, multivitamin once after two days during meals, 5gms of Cretin after very two days, Vitamin C, 1 gm per day in divided doses (this should be water soluble), L-Carnitine doses varies on body weight Calcium/Magnesium/Zinc tablets at500mg/250mg/50mg per day.


The approach used in this case study with regards to fitness tests or methods of evaluation, periodized training program and nutritional strategies and supplement recommendations have been greatly informed by Chad’s conditions.




Thompson, C. J., Cobb, K. M., & Blackwell, J. (2007). Functional training improves club head      speed and functional fitness in older golfers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(1), 131-137.


Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.