Comparison Matrix

Use the information from the completed “Comparison Matrix” to write a paper of 750-1,000 words in which you compare the two empirical articles. The paper will include the following elements:

Introduction (100-150 words)

The title of each study
The author of each study
Comparison of the purposes of each study
Comparison of the authors’ statements of why the study is important
Comparison of the research questions posed in the studies
?Research Questions (125-175 words)

Comparison of the research questions posed in the studies
Sample Populations (100-150 words)

Comparison of the sample populations used in the studies
Results (225-275 words)

Comparison of the results of the studies
Conclusion (200-250 words)

Discussion of the limitations of the studies
Comparison of the conclusions from the studies
Comparison of topics suggested for future study

Comparison Matrix

Article 1 Article 2
Title/Author(s) Assessing the trait theory of leadership using self and observer ratings of personality: The mediating role of contributions to group success.


Colbert, Amy E., Timothy A. Judge, Daejeong Choi, Gang Wang


The leadership skills strataplex: Leadership skill requirements

across organizational levels




Troy V. Mumford, Michael A. Campion, Frederick P. Morgeson

Persistent Link
Purpose of the Study

What is the author’s rationale for selecting this topic? Does he build a strong case?

The authors believe that studies using only self ratings of personality traits influencing the effectiveness and emergence of leaders may underestimate the relationship.  They state self and observer ratings are needed. Studies are cited where the use of only self rating produce inconsistent findings making a strong case for the research. The purpose of the study is to concentrate on leadership skills that can be developed, making better leaders.  This will focus on the skills needed to do the job of the leader raters than identifying characteristics of leaders which has had little success The authors wish to bring understanding of skill requirements needed using a conceptual model of leadership skill requirements across organizational levels.
Research Question(s)

What question(s) does the author present?

By using self and observer ratings the authors wish to show neuroticism is negative, extraversion is positive, openness to experience is positive,  conscientiousness is positive  related to perceptions of leadership and are mediated by contributions to group success. Strategic, business, interpersonal, and cognitive skills will be empirically divided.  The study will show that leadership skill requirements will differ by skill category with cognitive the largest followed respectively by interpersonal, business, and strategic and will be related to the job’s level. The authors want to show the stratification of the leadership skills.
Literature Review

How is this organized? What are the main themes found in the review? Who are the main authors used?

The literature review is divided by definitions of terms of traits used to set hypotheses.  Studies are cited as to the Big Five personality traits that will be used in this research using both self and observer ratings. The authors most used are McCrae and Costa, Judge, Bono et al, and Chernyshenko et al. The main authors used in the literature review are Mahoney et al., Katz and Kahn, Mumford, Marks, et al., and Connelly et al.  The review is divided into the four categories of leadership skills and the above authors have completed studies on the conceptualizations of skill requirements.  The strata of skill requirements are defined followed by the skills need at organizational level and the interaction of the two.
Sample Population(s)

What group(s) is/are being studied?

Study participants were 80 MBA and 98 undergraduate students, 178 total, that were attending a leadership course. The sample for the research was 1023 employees of an international U.S. government agency.  They were professionals of five different careers in 156 countries and taken from three levels of the organization-junior, mid, and senior.

What are the limitations of the study? Why can it only encompass so much?

Limitations include that there was no data collection on the observers, the three behaviors used as mediators represented general contributions to group success, and the leadership assessment was the perceptions of the other members. One limitation was that the study was conducted in the public sector, unsure if skills requirements are same in business roles.  Another limitation may be that the organization was highly formal, unsure if skills differ in less formal environment. The four studied factors were correlated either moderately or highly requiring more research to explore the strength of the strata structure.
Results/ Conclusions

What did the author find through the study? Was the original question answered?

The results showed that the five factor model using both ratings to be a functional framework for leadership prediction. All hypotheses were proven. The results proved the leadership model of strataplex did definitely distinguish the four leadership skills and that they may be empirically grouped into a four part complex. Cognitive skills were needed the most followed closely by interpersonal skills and that strategic and business skills are needed more when promoted up through the organization.  All hypotheses were proven.


Use the order calculator below and get started! Contact our live support team for any assistance or inquiry.