Concept Paper for a Research Design

 Concept Paper for a Research Design


Cross-border business development involves the coordination of different business communities across a particular region (Creswell, 2013). In this concept paper, we can have a look at the European Union strategic framework that it has used to facilitate cross-border Corporation in order to bring about business development in the region. In recent years, it has been difficult to develop businesses across borders because of the many issues that surround establishment and development of businesses across regions. These could include cultural sensitivity, cross boarder communication, taxation for cross border supplies of services and intangibles, and other issues related to cross border business development (Creswell, 2013).

The concept paper presents an overview of the potential cross border co-operation between two regions and it also provides the practical recommendations that can be used by the bordering regions (Creswell, 2013). These recommendations are developed in such a way that they can be used by the private sector representatives, the civil society advocates and international development corporation agencies. Cross boarder business development still remains difficult in many parts of the world, and as a result, this paper can improve the understanding of cross border business activities and also giving ways through which it can be made possible. Cross-border co-operation processes have been used by the European Union to facilitate businesses across all European regions. There has been the need to develop these processes because at borders between countries or regions have strict control of the movement of goods, persons, and all the activities that take place at the territorial jurisdiction (Creswell, 2013).



Statement of the problem

The restrictions that exist in territorial borders are one of the biggest challenges to the development of businesses across borders. These restrictions are beyond individual addressing and, therefore, they required to be addressed by the government and other business bodies in order to open ways for entrepreneurs to conduct their businesses (Hambrick, 1980). Cross-border Corporation consists of different phases that need to be followed so as to ensure business development across borders. These phases are complex, and they require much time to handle and commitment from the relevant bodies. These phases are difficult because being able to establish coordination between the different bodies is difficult. This coordination involves the citizens, the governments, and the private sector. This coordination ensures that the personal interests of these bodies are met in order to create a friendly business environment. The other phase involves creating favorable conditions that ensure both social and economic developments. The third phase involves the creation of institutions in different areas of the cross border regions so as to ensure that the problems in the area are equally solved (Maxwell, 2012). These phases are difficult to achieve and the countries that achieve the third phase in the European countries are called Euroregions. However, quite a big number of countries do not have formal or informal cooperation strategies put in place to guide how business should take place between them and their neighbors. The cross-border strategies that have been put in place to guide business in different countries are also not productive but rather procedural (Hambrick, 1980).

Purpose of the study

This study is aimed at giving a comparative analysis of two regions that engage in business between each other’s borders. This research study gives the different comparative strategies that can be used to analyze two different regions (Hambrick, 1980). These strategies include territory, demography, and local self-government, infrastructure, planning documents, economy, and tourism, institutions of social welfare, environmental protection, civil society, and development cooperation. This study also focuses on historical and contemporary initiatives for cross border cooperation and the exploration of chances for expansion of business between bordering regions. A brief SWOT analysis is also carried out in this study. This study finds out that there are three types of Euroregions that can be considered in addressing cross-border business development. The identified types of Euroregions are controlled by the local and regional authorities, and they are organized in such a way that they promote the interests of the boarder populations (Hambrick, 1980).

The first kind of Euroregions is the area that has macro-structures and/or political agreements that link that particular region with international business regions. The second king of Euroregions is the institutions that help in the implementation of cross-border cooperation through the use of functional networks. The last kind of Euroregion contains the goal for the cross-border cooperation. This involves the creation of cross-border business areas in specific economic function and the extent of the local population involvement (Hambrick, 1980).

Research questions

Communities that exist in a particular area have their own history of cooperation. Have some information about the cooperation between the people of different countries; it is possible to determine the type of strategies that should be used to enhance the existing cooperation level. In developing cross border business, it is necessary to address the issues of the potential funding of the specific businesses that are to be set up (Maxwell, 2012). The working systems of the existing agencies in the region should provide guidelines in the amount of funding that will be available for businesses. Through the study of the communities in the cross border business areas should help in determining the strategies that can be used to facilitate cooperation in terms of business for the two communities (Maxwell, 2012). The research question that can be used in this research, therefore, are; what would be the depth of cooperation between two communities in two different countries that want to engage in cross border business development considering the past cooperation patterns between them and what effects would this cooperation have on cross-border business development.


Null hypothesis: there is a big relationship between the relationship between two countries, and it is highly reflected in cross-border business development.

Alternative hypothesis: it is possible to improve cooperation between two countries or communities to facilitate cross-border business development.

Definition of terms

Term 1: Comparative analysis refers to analyzing two regions in a similar point in order to determine their similarity of difference (Yin, 2003).

Term 2: Demography refers to the population of people that exist in a particular area and their distribution (Yin, 2003).

Term3: Local self-government can be used as a term that refers to kind of body that maintains law and order in a particular area. This includes those in power and how they execute their authority (Yin, 2003).

Term 4: Infrastructure is a term that is uses to refer to the physical facilities that are used by the people of a particular area in their day to day activities (Yin, 2003).

Term 5: Planning documents are legal statements that are used in the process of cross-border business development (Yin, 2003).


Literature review

In determining the chance of cross-border cooperation, comparative analysis is necessary so as to determine how the two distinct communities can relate (Creswell, 1994). This is mostly done by looking at the historical relationship that has existed between the people of the two areas from a long time ago. This gives the guidelines for starting or improving joint development initiatives. In research on cross boarder business development, there are several issues that should be addressed (Creswell, 1994).

These issues include a deep analysis of the social economic situation in both countries, the administrative strategies that exist in the two countries, the institutional structures that already exist in the two areas and structures that can be proposed to equalize the two regions structurally, and the area that is covered by these structures (Creswell, 1994). This analysis can be carried out by reviewing the available documents about the two areas, collecting additional data and information from the citizens of the two countries and the authorities, conducting interviews and administering questionnaire so as to acquire different views from different people, and by use of any other verification means that if available. (Creswell, 1994).

Preparation of a SWOT analysis is used to determine the present business situation in the areas of interest. The results of the SWOT analysis help in the identification of prominent structures, the business opportunities and the problems that are likely to face the cross-border business development initiatives. This facilitates the development of appropriate strategies that can be used in planning future business developments in a particular region. There is also need to identify the necessary implementation, steering and monitoring structures that can ensure development of business in the target regions (Goldstein et al., 2002).



Research method: comparative analysis of two business countries/regions


The land configuration of two different regions plays a role in determining the success of business between the two regions (Goldstein et al., 2002). The attitude between two different areas will determine whether the cross-border relationship in business will blossom or not. If the climatic conditions of one country are too extreme, then the business may not do well for the other country. Rapid business development is likely to take place for countries or regions that have moderate climatic conditions because it is possible to coordinate the business activities between the two areas (Goldstein et al., 2002).


One can be able to determine the population density of the two areas through the use of existing census records. These records state whether the region is highly populated or not. The highly populated areas indicate chances of business development because the businesses will have high numbers of customers and also adequate number of employees (Goldstein et al., 2002).

Local self-government

The established kind of governance within a particular area should be included in the research for cross-border business development because the local; government plays a significant role in ensuring the success of business establishments. The local government is the body responsible for the construction of local structure and also their maintenance (Goldstein et al., 2002).


A study of the available infrastructure in a particular area is necessary to ensure that there are available facilities that promote the success of the business. The means of transport used in both regions are analyzed to see their effectiveness in promoting business. Through the study of available facilities, it is possible to determine which areas would require more attention in the improvement of these structures so as to ensure business development. The waste ways, waterways, and also electricity are other forms of infrastructure that should be considered for business development (McDougall & Oviatt, 2000).

The local economy of the two regions is another key area that ensures success of business development. The economy of an area where one wants to establish a business determines whether the business will grow or not. If the business of a country is on the downfall, it is very difficult to establish a business in such an area because the business is likely to collapse. The analysis of the economy is important in order to identify the rate at which that economy is growing and to predict the success of establishment of cross-border business. The analysis of the economy status and growth of the countries of interest, one uses the annual financial reports for recent years so as to know the trend of the economy for that particular country. The success trend of the existing enterprises also provides information on how the country’s economy favors business development (McDougall & Oviatt, 2000).

Civil society organizations

The functioning of civil society organizations should be analyzed for both countries. The number of the civil society organizations that exist in each country should be considered because they are important in participating in decision making processes. The high numbers of well performing civil society organizations have been found to lead to society developments so that each organization can get a chance to be funded by the government (McDougall & Oviatt, 2000).

International development cooperation

Data is obtained from the organization’s records to show the participation of the specific country in its activities. This maximizes the chances of funding for that particular country. The business projects of the country will be funded by this cooperation if it is committed in participating in its activities (McDougall & Oviatt, 2000).


The measurement method appropriate to use for comparative analysis is SWOT analysis. Through the use of SWOT analysis, one is able to analyze the data from different countries and to determine the strengths and weaknesses of one country over the other. The data used in the research is descriptive so as to ensure that the comparison is accurate. Through the use of numerical data in data comparison, the comparison method of research for this study is effective. The threat in the research design is the accuracy of the results (Maxwell, 2012). This threat can be addressed by ensuring that the documents used to collect data are legal from the relevant offices. The SWOT analysis identifies the strengths and weaknesses, and opportunities and threats (Ramsey et al., 2003).

The strengths include geographic proximity, good history of cooperation, local authorities and community leaders have a positive experience in direct communication, similar development goals and objectives, and willingness to engage in the establishment of similar projects (Ramsey et al., 2003). The weaknesses include disparity in population numbers of two countries, lack of skills in a general language, inadequate experience increasing cross-border initiatives, and availability of poor infrastructure between the two countries. The opportunities that can be available for the two countries that want to engage in cross border business development include getting funds from other initiates, increased tourism from the other country and provision of technical support from development organization. Threats could include legislation difficulties, lack of national funds for the development of infrastructure and threats such as natural disasters (Ramsey et al., 2003).

The ethical issues that can be involved in this study involve the freedom to conduct interviews and administer questionnaires in the two countries (Ramsey et al., 2003). This is an issue when it comes to the acquisition of consent from wide numbers of participants. One may not have enough time to give full information about the research before getting the participants to consent. However, cross border cooperation is a strategy that can be easily implemented to ensure and promote the cross-border business development.


Creswell, J. W. (1994). Research design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.   Operationalizing the concept of business-level strategy in research. Academy of          Management Review, 5(4), 567-575.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage Publications, Incorporated.

Goldstein, S. M., Johnston, R., Duffy, J., & Rao, J. (2002). The service concept: the missing link in service design research?. Journal of Operations management, 20(2), 121-134.

Maxwell, J. A. (2012). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (Vol. 41). New          York: Sage.

McDougall, P. P., & Oviatt, B. M. (2000). International entrepreneurship: the intersection of two research paths. Academy of management Journal, 43(5), 902-906.

Ramsey, E., Ibbotson, P., Bell, J., & Gray, B. (2003). E-opportunities of service sector SMEs: an Irish cross-border study. Journal of small business and enterprise development, 10(3), 250-264.

Yin, R. K. (Ed.). (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (Vol. 5). New York: Sage.



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