The foreign policies of a country refer to the strategies that the country undertakes to uphold its international affairs aimed at the achievement of its goals in matters that regard international relations. They usually define the strategies that govern a country’s relation with foreign countries. The policies are always aimed at maximizing the mutual benefits that accompany international relations (Fukuyama, 20). The objective of this particular case study is to evaluate the foreign and globalization policies of Egypt. Egypt’s policies are greatly determined by geopolitics due its location; its geographical position is strategic since it borders two continents and has a link between two major water ways: the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. Its foreign policies must be strong enough in order to have control over the vast resources that it surrounds and to avoid being victims of external powers. Egypt also has control of River Nile and it is of great significance its economy. The foreign policies of Egypt are based on principles of non-alignment and they are primarily aimed at the upholding the country’s political position, both at the regional and international level. These foreign policies are established for the sole purpose of attaining the overall good for the Egyptian society with regard to their Islamic values. The foreign policies of Egypt thus can be best described as liberalism because the foreign policies that govern its international relations are basically aimed towards the domestic importance of Egyptians and the maintenance of Islamic values.
Globalization in Egypt was not received well due to the religious attachment the Egyptians have towards Islamic values. The policies that govern the country both at international and domestic level are based on the Islamic values. They viewed globalization as a threat to their religious values (Stiglitz, 36). Globalization presented itself as a challenge to Egyptians; they had to choose between accepting it at the risk of its influence on their religious values and the general benefits that accompany globalization. Egypt embraced globalization but not on complete appreciation of its social transformation to the Egyptian society. To Egypt, the social transformations that came with globalization was not put into much consideration, instead, they focused on the economic benefits of globalization. This globalization patterns represented the transformationalist view. Egypt globalization pattern extremely oppose the hyperglobalist view because they are of the view that globalization will result to a loss of their political position, both at the regional and international level. The globalization patterns of Egypt can not be describes from skeptics perspective, skeptics are extremely opposed to globalization terming it as politically defective.
Egypt is one of the Arab countries that can be used to highlight the merits and challenges due to globalization. The view that global change results to winners and losers is acceptable. Globalization in Egypt resulted to a number of benefits. The nation’s economy got a boost that can be accredited to technological advancements and social transformations among the Egyptians. Globalization resulted to transformation of Egypt’s economy from a centrally controlled market to a free market economy; due to the intervention of the World Bank and international monetary Fund. This transition presented many challenges to the citizens of Egypt because the government services were cut and the prices of domestic goods rose. Another effect of globalization was social transformation, this facilitated women’s involvement in economic activities. The Egypt’s winners and losers from the process of globalization can be from viewed from the NIE perspective, they believe that losses due to global change are short term and in the long run, globalization is meant to be of ultimate good in the global market.
Global cities in the modern world form a major finance hub for many Islamic cities and Egypt is no exception. Its geographic location makes it a strategic location for linking Arabs, Muslims and Africans. Egypt strategic location as a land bridge that separates two continents plays an important role in its economic development. One of the major cities in Egypt is Cairo, which forms major global economic hub in Egypt. Other global cities in Egypt include Alexandria; which is located along the coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Other cities in Egypt include Giza, Al Dakahleya, and the red sea, Al Beheira, Al Fayoum and many more.(Hana & Hanaa, 156) Most of these cities are commercial based, administrative and have rich manufacturing industries. In terms of development of global cities, Egypt has not developed much to reach a world class level. The concept of competitive advantage implies that countries or states aim at implementing policies that favor them in the market and gives them power to control the dynamics of the market. Competitive advantage always results in a nation to outperform its major competitors (Vietor, 39). In terms of the competitive advantage of nations, Egypt has been greatly favored by its geographical position and time difference. Its geographic locations favor it in terms of business activities since it has two major water ways and it is centrally located between Europe and Asia. This offers it competitive advantages over other nations since its links are close to other continents. Egypt can also be viewed as politically strategic, it forms the link between Africans, Arabs and Muslims, and therefore it serves a major role in Africa. Egypt’s cultural proximity plays a major role in ensuring competitive advantage. Its trade relations with the United States and Europe integrate the Egyptians into American culture which is a major factor in determining international business relations. The government understands the importance of the competitive advantage it has over other nations and therefore established policies that would help strengthen its competitive advantage.
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