Culture and distribution

?This paper develops a hypothetical international business idea and analyses the economic environment in which the business is going to be established to find out how factors like competition, production and government policies would affect the business.
Name and Nature of the Business
?The business will be called En-Sync Technologies Inc. It will be based in New York with subsidiary headquarter based in West Africa particularly Ghana. The business will use the latest technology to manufacture electrical items like energy saving lamps, solar panels, power inventors and other electrical energy saving solutions. The business will also venture electronics like mobile phones, television units, television decoders and home entertainment hi-fi systems. Manufacturing will be done in Ghana where there is affordable labor. But overall management will be done from the headquarters in New York. The main objective of the business will be to provide quality energy efficient electronic and electrical products to the West African and East African market.
Market Entry Strategy
A potential market has been identified in Ghana and Kenya. Solar solutions are particularly needed in Africa where there is poor electrical power distribution and most homes cannot afford the electricity from the national grid. According to data available at, the Ghanaian GDP expanded steadily from 1997 to 1999. This implies an increase in income of the population. Inflation has also been dropping steadily meaning the general population can be able to afford luxurious electronic items. The data also shows that imports from United States have decreased steadily over the three years. It seems like steps are being taken to reduce imports from the West. Exportation would also be expensive due to freight and insurance charges and taxes applicable to imports. Manufacturing goods in the United States and exporting them would therefore not be a wise idea. The labor force has been increasing meaning that skilled labor is available in that market that can support production at a reasonable cost. The site also states that Ghana has a relatively stable political environment conducive for business. The government has also reduced subsidy to local producers hence creating a level playing ground for both local and foreign manufactures. The government has also initiated steps to strengthen the private sector and has embarked on a privatization program. En-Sync Technologies could take advantage of these developments in the private sector. Information from indicates that Ghanaian economy is mainly agriculture based and the manufacturing industry is still not well exploited. There is a huge potential opportunity for investment in the manufacturing sector.
?African markets are not heavily industrialized so there are likely to be little local completion from the manufacturing industry. According to , local electronics factories reportedly closed due to foreign completion leaving a gap in this sector that can easily be filled. Major competition is expected to competition is expected to come from imports especially from Asian markets. Camordy (2011) write that China dominates West African imports especially cheap electronics. China will thus be the main competitor in the Ghanaian market. Chinese products are preferred because of their low price and their unique features that serve the African needs quite well for example mobile phones with flashlights for use in the dark where electricity is unavailable. These products are however known for their low quality and lack of durability. To counter this, En-Sync will borrow from the architecture of the Chinese goods and develop electronics with features relevant to the African environment. To produce high quality products at low cost, En-Sync will rely on the cheap easily available labor in the local market. On job training will be offered to the employees to achieve the highest level of skills. European electronic imports are also available in the market but they are not preferred due to their high prices that compensate for their high quality. En-Sync will strike the balance between quality and cost to the consumers
Comparison of Alternative Markets

United States
(Local Market)
United Kingdom
(Foreign Market)
(Foreign Market)
Production Costs
High Cost of labor
High labor costs
Affordable labor cost
Competition from similar business
High competition from established similar businesses
High competition from similar businesses
High competition from similar businesses
Legal factors
Tax incentives available
Heavy taxes to foreign businesses
Heavy taxes
Political environment
Stable environment conducive for business
Stable political environment
Stable but autocratic political environment
Economic growth
High per capita income
High per capita income.
High per- capita income

?Most of the factors analyzed in the table above tend to favor alternative markets except competition that is relatively low in Ghana En-Sync’s market of choice. The company’s strategy is to focus on fast growth and increase market share as fast as possible. That cannot be achieved where production costs are high and competitors are well established hence an African market like Ghana and Kenya were the best choices for En-Sync Plc.
Customer analysis
?The company will target to sell its products to customers in Kenya. The market will be segmented after thorough customer analysis has been done. The company will have its headquarters in New York, manufacturing will be carried out in Ghana and the products will be sold in Ghana, USA and Kenya. Dibb & Simkin (1997) noted that customers of various products exhibit heterogeneity in their product requirements and buying behavior. Segmentation of the market in Kenya will involve designing segments made up of customers with similar buying patterns.
?Since the products will potentially be bought by a large number of consumers the only viable segmentation strategy will be geographical segmentation of the market. Geographic segmentation is used where customers who live in a certain region share some related wants and needs which differ from customers in different areas (Martin, 2011). Products such as mobile phones with flashlights, solar panels, energy saving lamps, power invertors and other electrical energy saving solutions will be sold in areas with low electricity penetration and in low middle income areas. This is because such areas have low electricity prevalence. The segmentation will be as follows;
•?The first segment will comprise; Lower Eastern; lower middle income areas in cities and parts of coastal areas- products to target such areas will include mobile phones with flash lights, solar panels, energy saving lamps, power invertors and other electrical energy saving solutions. Price will be pocket friendly because the purchasing power is low.
•?The second segment will be customers who reside in upper middle income and upper class areas. These are such estates as Runda, Muthaiga, Kitsuru, Lavington, Nyali in Mombasa, Milimani in Kisumu etc. in Kenya. Products that will be sold in those areas include; mobile phones, television units, television decoders and home entertainment hi-fi systems. The pricing will be at a premium because the purchasing power is very high.
?Marketing mix variables of price, place, product and promotion will be designed to ensure customer preferences and tastes are prioritized in each segment and enable the company to be competitive and sustainable. Promotion activities will be designed to suit each segment. The size of the market is estimated to be about US$ 5 billion.
Market Entry Mode
?The preferred market entry mode will be distributorship. This mode of market entry will involve identifying the right distributor because the company’s image and integrity will depend on the perception the target consumers have on the image and integrity the distributor (Sherrie, 1999). According to Sherrie (1999) the distributor will be responsible for promotion and marketing of En Sync Plc.’s products in the various segments in the entire country. This mode will offer En Sync Plc. control over quality and price(Sherrie, 1999). En Sync Plc. will not need to assign more resources to the Kenyan market as would have been the case in a joint venture.
The general objectives or goals of your business
?The general objective will be to achieve a minimum of 10% of the market share in the first year and target a growth in market share of at least 20% each year for the next 5 years. This translates to a targeted sales figure of US$ 500 million in the first year and a growth of 20% in sales each year for the next 5 years.
Market research conducted
?Market research was conducted to determine whether there is a sufficient market for the products that will be produced by the company in the Kenyan market. This was done because lack of sufficient knowledge about a foreign market a company intends to enter is the main reason why firms fail in the international marketplace (Czinkota & Ronkainen 1994). The method used to do the research was by collecting intelligent information on the market and customers through the use of secondary research. Information was collected from trade journals, CIA intelligence sources, information from the Kenyan commercial attaché in the Kenyan Embassy in Washington, travel magazines and other research works, which was retrieved from The data was used to segment the market, to identify the best distributor and determine pricing strategies for the different segments to be targeted.
?En-Sync Plc has therefore chosen the Kenyan market due to favorable government policies, relatively stable political environment, manageable completion and low production costs. The nature of the company’s products is also best suited for the African market that is solar products can easily move in developing countries compared to first world markets.

1999 Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices. Released by the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs U.S. Department of State, March 2000. Retrieved from

Czinkota, M. R., & Ronkainen, I. A. (1994). Market Research For Your Export Operations: Part I – using secondary sources of research. International Trade Forum, (3), 22-22. Retrieved from

Dibb, S., & Simkin, L. (1997). A Program For Implementing Market Segmentation. The Journal of
Business & Industrial Marketing, 12(1), 51-65. Retrieved from

Ghana. Economy.

Martin, G. (2011). The Importance of Marketing Segmentation. American Journal of Business Education, 4(6), 15-18. Retrieved from

Padraig Carmody (2011). The New Scramble for Africa Retrieved from

Sherrie, E. Z. (1999). Choosing a Market Entry Strategy. World Trade, 12(5), 40-46. Retrieved from

Above work is SLP 1 and SLP 2. Now continue with SLP 3.
The questions for the module 03 part of your SLP direct you to consider the distribution of your product(s).

Excluding your title page, and prior sections of the SLP, your SLP03 section of the marketing strategy should be approximately three pages long.

SLP03 should begin with the sections you prepared for SLP01 and SLP02 (i.e. sections 1-12, revised as necessary) with those pages placed before you analyze the following sections:

SLP for MOD03

9. How will your product be distributed (DISTRIBUTION, LOCATION & TIMING)? Some relevant issues to consider relate to bothwhere and when your product will be available to customers. Where will it be located and why? During what hours will customers be able to buy? Will an agent be used? How will customers be able to order the product? If a service, are there tangible elements associated with it and if so how will they be distributed?

10. What are the VARIATIONS (in distribution) BY TARGET MARKET, if any? Use the customer segmentation analysis developed for MOD01 – or a development or refinement of it – as a basis for a table to describe any variations in distribution.

11. COMPETITIVE REACTION (DISTRIBUTION): If there are established competitors already using established channels of distribution how might they react to your entry and what will you do about that if they do?

12. Explain the MARKET RESEARCH conducted for the Module 3 sections of the SLP.

Make sure you use section headings for each of the Questions/Issues. At a minimum, use the CAPITALIZED BOLD words as main headings and non-capitalized bold words as subheadings.

Write in a succinct, organized, and professional way. DO NOT USE ESSAY FORMAT.


It is expected that you will explain the alternatives you considered and why you decided to make the recommendations you do. Also that you will use information from the background readings as well as any good quality sources you can find to deepen your understanding of the project and that you will cite all sources and provide a reference list at the end of the paper.

The following will be assessed in particular:

Your demonstrated understanding of the concepts and frameworks used to conduct analysis for the project. Generally formal definitions are not required as understanding can usually be demonstrated by the way you apply or interpret the concepts.
Your ability to conduct marketing analysis appropriate to the project. The sections above require a combination of description, (e.g. what will be done) and analysis (explaining why it should be done that way). Graders will place more weight on analysis than description alone.
The criteria used for assessment will be those explained on the MOD01 Home page, namely:

Critical thinking, including selection and application of relevant frameworks.
Effective and appropriate communication skills.
Proper use of Citations and References

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