NB: –     please use diagrams like (rich pictures, system map.cause effect diagram) plus use swot analysis..

–          read the course of the open university,bloc1 and bloc2


–          read the t306a books then answer.



Darzentas, J., Darzentas, J., & Spyrou, T. (1994), “Defining the Design “Decision Space”: rich pictures and relevant subsystems”, AMODEUS Project Document TA/WP 21.


Kerth, N. (2001), Project Retrospectives: A Handbook for Team Reviews, Dorset House, New York.



  1. 1.      If you have a choice, would you use this SSM method or would you rather use the HSM? Explain why to senior management who hired you as a consultant. (20 marks)


The SSM method is usually geared towards getting to know or becoming aware of the underlying complexity. The complexity is usually depicted by ambiguous events which happen over unclear circumstances and tend to evoke emotional factors. The SSM system is therefore utilized in situations where the best outcome is not known thus it comes up with a position where the involved parties are on a consensus about what actions are feasible, acceptable and utile.



  • Soft complexity:

o Soft complexity tends to be about discovering what the issue is about. You may not

know in any calculated sense what the best answer is but you can come to some

shared perception about what is happening and what actions are acceptable, feasible

and useful.

o In soft complexity, the description of events is ambiguous – unclear as it involves

emotional factors.

Example for soft complexity in messes is the personal problems; where high emotional

involvement exists (e.g. divorce, career choices


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