Intercultural Communication

Intercultural Communication



  1. Components of Intercultural communication competence

Reports from past studies have posited that communication competence has been there since time immemorial. Communication competence has been directly linked with public speaking. Researchers have in the past tried to elucidate communication competence as the aptitude of an individual to decide on the accessible and presented talkative and unrestrained activities and manners of conduct. I other words, it is the level of effectual and successful adjustments to spoken and unspoken communication in regard to the customs and traditions of a particular society. This is important as it helps in the achievement of individual objective during interaction with other individuals and at the same time maintaining contact. In elucidating communication competence, these researchers emphasized and drew attention to the significance of the capability of the individuals communicating or socializing in realizing their objectives and also in demonstrating worry toward other individuals when communicating. There are a number of constituents of communication competence. These include the information and awareness, skills, as well as attitudes.

Information and awareness constituent involves the echelons of literary understanding of an individual in regard to others in the process of communication. For instance, the Chinese are known for consuming dog meat while the same is considered a taboo in most parts of Africa. Therefore, it is of significance for individuals to comprehend the actions and activities considered a taboo in the community of origin of individuals they often interact with as it may avert faults. In skills and ability component of intercultural communication, an individual sees himself/herself the same manner other individuals sees hi/her. An individual learns through socialization, and recognizes individual activities and manners of conduct in accordance to the needs of the society. For instance, an individual can practice the norms of a particular society I a bid to connect with others. The attitudes component is based on inquisitiveness and interest through understanding the various aspects of a particular society or community. It also involves respecting the customs and traditions of others. Therefore, it is important for an individual to understand and comprehend other people’s customs and traditions without being critic. In the case of the Chinese consuming dog meet, an individual is supposed to comprehend and respect these Chinese practices without criticizing them.

  1. Aspects of anxiety and uncertainty management

Uncertainty is referred to as the degree or level in which a condition or the state of affairs is erratic or impulsive. Uncertainty management theory is a self-evident or manifest hypothesis that elucidates and envisages the exchange of ideas between individuals. The first step the unfamiliar individuals focus on is to minimize uncertainty between them in a bid to elevate certainty in regard to their individual actions. On the basis of the seven axioms and twenty one theorems, spoken and unspoken foundations on exchange of ideas diminish uncertainty. This is considered the major reason for increased levels of communication between the two individuals in coming times. There are four conceptions involved in anxiety and uncertainty management. These include anxiety, uncertainty, efficient communication, and mindfulness. The nervousness, embarrassment and fear in communicating in what is known as anxiety. Mindfulness is the honesty and sincerity to novel ideas and facts.  There are a number of issues that affect uncertainty and anxiety management. These include self-conception, inspiration to communicate, feedback, collective classification, circumstances, individual or group attachments, and moral socialization.



  1. Relational empathy and its relevance to cross cultural communication

Empathy and communication founded on understanding and compassion are essential or indispensable abilities that are considered important in assisting commitments and connecting ethnic and literary aspects between members from different social backgrounds. Researchers have in the past pointed out that comprehension of information on customs and traditions is not enough or adequate in inducing compassion and understanding. Relational empathy recognition is referred to as the comprehension of an individual’s literary and ethnic conditions as well as the social and political situations of the individual. Relational empathy can traverse conventional peripheries due to the fact that associations between individuals are considered a common or collective aspect. This shows that by comprehending the ways or manners in which relational associates are identified and characterized based on racial and literary perspectives, various individuals from all walks of life can correspond or converse on an ethnically and racially compassionate and concerned echelon. Through relational empathy, individuals are able to establish better logic and judgments on ideas, judge how others treat them, and also establish better associations and relationships with other.

  1. Levels of intercultural conflicts

Intercultural conflicts refers to professed and apparent incongruity or inaptness in objectives, concerns, significance, prospects, procedures, as well as the results linked between a number of individuals from different backgrounds in terms of culture and traditions. Based on the fact that customs and traditions are some of the factors that control associations between individuals, disagreements or inconsistencies between individuals from different backgrounds may be between individuals, between groups, between organizations or corporations, and even between two or more countries. These are the various levels of intercultural conflicts. Disagreements are all-encompassing hence their analysis and scrutiny as well as control of these disagreements is based on cultural considerations. It is evident that individuals possess divergent and multifaceted suppositions, anticipations, as well as oral and unspoken correspondence regulations and standards that oversee and manage the practice or procedure of variances. It is also true that various communities, organizations, and countries with varying customs and traditions have their own regulations and standards that manage their actions.

  1. Aspects of face and Facework

Face is considered the decency or propriety as well as admiration that an individual can declare and allege to receive from his/her associates and other individuals in consideration of the merit position. There are two types of faces. These include positive face and negative face. In positive face, individuals seek to acquire the endorsement and support of others through involvement and reverence. In negative face, individuals seek to gain independence and self sufficiency and at the same time minimize the probability of being manipulated by other individuals. It is of significance to posit that face is placed or positioned while the individuals involved interchange the responsibility and functions of the player during the process of socialization. Facework on the other hand is made possible via exchange of ideas by availing and developing a number of features or characteristics of an individual. Many researchers have in the past illustrated face as a sovereign or self governing entity. It is also important to point out the fact that face can be lost through a number of ways. For instance, when a memorandum or note projected for a particular individual or group is sent and received by another entity, face is lost. It is also lost when an individual’s assertion of how to be regarded or considered is mislaid. Therefore, it is important for individuals to have high levels of self-respect or decorum, satisfaction, admiration, ignominy, as well as a sense of responsibility in order to maintain face. In times of danger or intimidation, individuals will attempt to maintain face. Saving face is considered a self-protective action aimed at resolving and neutralizing possible aggressive or intimidating conditions. Saving face in most times leads to the intensification of clashes hence the formation of antagonist and opposing associations. Conferring face is important as it enables individuals to uphold and sustain face after loss of the face, and also prior to its loss.

  1. Conceptions of peace and approaches to peace building

In definition, peace is referred to as the absence of conflict. There are various factors that try to validate the concept of conflicts. Conflicts involve a lot of individual involvement and comprise antagonism and opposition. In a conventional perspective, there are a number of allegorical and emblematic plans of action that establish representations of cruel and violent behavior. These include force versus freedom, belligerence versus resistance, and absurdity versus shrewdness. Peace can be categorized into two main types; namely negative and positive peace. Negative peace is the nonexistence of conflicts while positive peace is the collective and shared accord, autonomy or free will in regard to the absence of disputes and disagreements. Various researchers and authors have pointed out that diverse communities and countries have differing comprehensions of peace. Western countries regard peace as an agreement or accord to steer clear of or shun antagonism and aggression while the Eastern nations view peace as being complete, intact, or exclusive. There are a number of approaches to peace building. Peace building is considered an enduring procedure or progression that takes place subsequent to a disagreement or divergence. In most cases, it takes place when the divergence has settled. Peace building can happen at a macro level or micro level. Macro level means that the processes of peace building are focused at the creation and development of peace building organizations, change or conversion of the political culture, and establishing a system of government that is elected by the people. At the micro level, peace building takes place through international mediations and negotiations. It can take place through track I mediation involving discussions and exchange of ideas among the bureaucrats in an effort to establish peace, or through track II mediations whereby there is discussions involving non-bureaucratic powerful and significant individuals from the affected community or country.

  1. Effective Intercultural Workgroup Theory

This theory give details and clarifies the ways in which literary unpredictability and inconsistency as well as range control the progression and practice of exchange of ideas and the consequent results that takes place in workgroups. This hypothesis involves a number of key aspects. These include contextual features, group features, and also cultural-individual issues. Contextual issues comprise of an account of unsettled divergences within racial clusters, the quantity of individuals from every racial community, the probability or possibility of individuals to hearten and support individual concerns, and rank or position of individuals in the social order. These issues are proved to contribute to the obstruction or impediment of the establishment of a universal distinctiveness and uniqueness. The group features refers to the level or literary variations within a group of individual and varies with the level of similarity of the group members. Cultural-individual issues include the principles, standards, and individuality of particular groups of individuals.

  1. Paradigms of Globalization

The two paradigm of globalization are best explained through the division between individuals in support of globalization and critics. Those in support points to the fact that globalization covers the whole universe while the critics argue that there are many forms of globalization. There are two examples of globalization. Globalization may include the growth and advancement of all the aspects of associations and links within the world without the participation of the government. Globalizations on the other hand may involve the associations and participation between diverse governments.

  1. Dynamics of Globalization

There are also a number of dynamics in globalization. Globalization can be viewed as been innate within individuals and groups and this focuses towards development and advancements of living standards. This contributes to changes in globalization through trade, religious conviction, opinions, as well as conflicts. Globalization is also viewed as a long lasting recurring procedure. It can also be analyzed as a sequence of chronological eras with diverse foundations. Other dynamics points out that the basis of globalization is situated in influential and decisive chronological occurrences, and that globalization is restricted or narrowed to natural features and characteristics of the modern world. Some of the examples of globalization include economic globalization and cultural globalization. Factors that contribute to changes in globalization also include free enterprise, technology, global organizations. Others include information and its comprehension, and skills and capabilities.

  1. Features of network society

A network society can be defined as a technical or scientific society. There are a number of characteristics of network society. Network societies are characterized by the plentiful and profuse employment or utilization of information technology. Network society is associated with economic reliance among countries or communities, globalization, and also collective associations on the basis of personal uniqueness or individuality.


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