International migration is the relocation of individuals, families, or groups of people from one country to another. This practice has been witnessed from time immemorial. International relocation has been either between continents, within a continent, or between countries in the world. People have migrated across international borders as a result of difficulties such as food shortages, internal conflicts, and also in search of better facilities and weather. This is mainly caused by economic, political, social, and structural factors within the migrant sending country and the migrant receiving countries. This paper focuses on economic pressures as a cause of international migration, as well as social networks and connections between migrant sending and receiving countries that cause international migration.
Okpewho and Izegwu posits that “proponents of the dual labor market theory argue that international migration is caused not by push factors in the sending countries but by pull factors in the receiving countries” (38). Conditions in modern developing economies for low wage and low status jobs in labor markets push or force people to migrate. The economic issues causing international migration can be classified into a few categories. One of the significant categories is at the inclusive stage. International relocation occurs as a consequence of the disparity in earnings levels as well as other variations in the job market. Therefore, individuals are inclined towards making choices in favor of relocating to other nations in search of better opportunities. Relocation choices are also considered a characteristic of certain families. A number of individuals are forced by economic circumstances to relocate abroad with an intention of benefitting from better opportunities. These opportunities include higher earnings and better working conditions. These are the pull factors.
The major cause of international relocation is the physical disparity in demand and supply in the employment industry. Countries receiving a large number of immigrants have scarcity of labor on the basis of resources ad wealth. Therefore, these countries have high income levels as compared to the developing countries. Due to the high level of unemployment in the developing countries, individuals are inclined towards migrating to other nations in search of job opportunities. The probability of finding a job pushes people from one region to another. Results from studies done in the past have shown that very minimal international migration is caused by poverty (Vandererf and Heering 88).
Social networks and connections between migrant sending and receiving countries
The issue of international relocation has been largely caused by economic pressures. No matter what instigates relocation of people from one place to the other, the issue and dynamics that are responsible for it are fairly diverse (Martiniello and Rath 61). Therefore, a number of hypotheses have been designed in a bid to offer an in-depth explanation of new-fangled circumstances that result to international relocation. One issue that causes international migration is the relationship that connects those relocating; those that relocated in the past to other destinations; and the individuals left behind in the nations of origin and destined locations. These relationships are in form of blood relations, friendship, and other societal relations. These are significant in international relocations as they lessen the amount of expenditure incurred by individuals relocating, lower the dangers and threats of migration, and also increase the advantages of these international relocations. These factors together elevate the possibility or chances of intercontinental relocations (Okpewho and Izegwu, 39).
There are also other social factors in the receiving and sending countries that accelerate the rate of international migration. These include industrial revolutions in the receiving countries, condensing relations of commerce between the two countries, better modes of transport and relay of information, and assimilation of cultures from the sending countries by the receiving countries (Okpewho and Izegwu, 39). Lack of vital services such as health services and learning services as a result of economic constraints within a country can also force people to migrate to other countries.
In conclusion, international migration is caused by a number of factors such as economic pressures, social networks and connections between emigrant sending and receiving countries, immigration guiding principles, and literary and educational perceptions people in developing countries have about immigration and immigrant receiving countries. International immigration is eased by the connections and relationship between those relocating; those that previously relocated; as well as the individuals left behind in the nations of origin and destined locations through family ties, goodwill, and other societal dealings. These factors are noteworthy in international relocations as it lessens the total expenditure used by those relocating, lowers the dangers and threats of immigration, and also increases the advantages of these international relocations. These factors together elevate the possibility or chances of intercontinental relocations. International relocation is the outcome of the huge differences in earnings levels as well as other variations in the job market between the country sending immigrants and that receiving. For that reason, individuals are liable to make options in favor of relocating to other nations in search of better opportunities.
Martiniello, Marco and Rath Jan. Selected Studies in International Migration and Immigrant Incorporation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010. Print.
Okpewho, Isidore and Izegwu Nkiru. The New African Diaspora. USA: Indiana University Press, 2009. Print.
Vandererf, Bob and Heering Liesbeth. Causes of International Migration: Proceedings of a Workshop Luxembourg. Luxenbourgh: Eurostat, 1996. Print.
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