A similar feature between the Antarctic and arctic oceanic waters is that both water bodies are covered by ice. Another notable similarity between them is their common salinity of the waters. Some of the differences between the Antarctic and arctic is  in the sea ice due to different geographical orientations of the two. The ice in the Arctic Ocean is not as mobile as the ice in the Antarctic Ocean; this is because the Arctic Ocean is almost completely surrounded by land, therefore limiting mobility of the ice. The Antarctic Ocean comprises of a huge ocean surrounding a small land mass, the ice that forms in these ocean is more mobile and moves freely in high speeds as compared to the ice on Arctic Ocean. This phenomenon can be used to explain the differences in thickness of the ice; the ice in Arctic Ocean is thicker due the confinement by the adjacent lands while the ice in Antarctic is less thick because continuous free movement causes it melts faster. The arctic oceans calves more icebergs possibly due the stagnant nature of the ice on the ocean which results in an increased thickness resulting to more ice bergs.


One of the famous polar explorers of all times was a Briton named Sir Wally Herber. His research contributed significantly to the field of Marine science with special interest on the polar marine laid foundation on the proper understanding of the marine structure in the Polar Regions.


The development of coral reefs and tropical rainforests are impelled by human factors. Coral reefs ecosystems have similar characteristics to the tropical rain forest. Just like the tropical rainforest, a coral reef ecosystem has a biodiversity in life forms which survive on mutual dependency. The coral reef can be viewed as the tropical rainforest.


Zooxanthellae are single celled plants that reside on the tissues of coral animals; they form the planktons in the coral reefs. There exists a symbiotic relationship between zooxanthellae and reef that corals. Corals provide it with a protected surrounding and necessary elements necessary for photosynthesis. In turn the zooxanthella provides food to the coral animals and this mutual relationship is essential for the building of the coral reefs.


Coral bleaching takes place when the zooxanthella migrates from its coral host due to the inability of the host to supply it with compounds necessary for photosynthesis. It results to corals loosing their color. Coral bleaching occurs when the conditions that are needed for the survival of zooxanthellae are not met. The major cause of coral bleaching is high water temperatures; a slight increase in the water temperature is enough to trigger coral bleaching. Another factor that causes coral bleaching is changes in salinity levels of the water, high salinity does not favor the survival of corals and these results to the death of the corals. Other factors responsible for coral bleaching are pollution, sedimentation, infections by pathogen, decline in the planktons and reduced solar radiance.



Monsoon refers to the reversal of the direction of wind which results in changes in the amount of rainfall. Monsoon happens seasonally. Monsoon is experienced in the continental United States due to the presence of large water bodies surrounding the continental US.


The prevailing winds and currents are named according to the place from which they are originating and the way in which they are moving. They are also named according to the time of the year which they occur.


These are bio-organisms whose bode survive partly in water and the other part is in water. They survive on the air-water surface.


The factors responsible for three wind bands in the hemisphere include the ocean currents and processes

10 – 5.                                                                                                                                                              The dangerous ocean condition in times of hurricane include the presence of waves hitting the coastline, when the water levels rises high above the land level and when there is no clear coastline.



Surface ocean currents are motions of water that takes place on the surface of water bodies and are mostly due the effect of wind acting on the water surface. Deeper water currents refer to motion of water at the bottom of the water body due to variations in water density. Surface currents tend to move at a higher speed than deeper water currents.

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The fastest moving ocean current is the Gulf Stream and travels at the rate of between 40 to120 kilometers in a day


Ocean currents form a major part of the activities that take place in the sea or ocean. Ocean currents have an effect on sea transport, if the currents do not reach disastrous levels; it facilitates faster sea transport which enhances international trade and thus an overall benefit on the economy of a country. Ocean currents have the ability to bring fish to the surface of the waters and this facilitates fishing as an economic activity.


El Niño-Southern Oscillation refers to a climate pattern that takes after every five years on the tropical sides of the Pacific Ocean. It comes with significant variations in temperature of the surface of the ocean.


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Upwelling refers to the displacement of shallow waters in an ocean to the surface of the ocean. Coastal upwelling is mainly on a small scale as compared to oceanic upwelling.
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Geostrophic flow refers to the horizontal movement of water in the surface of water body due to a balance between the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis force. These movements help to increase the freshness of an ocean.

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Some of the items used to study deep water ocean circulation are the satellite; satellite can be used to peer beneath the surfaces of the water bodies to monitor deep water motions. Another item that is important during deep ocean study ids the tracer; it is used to study ocean processes

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Hurricane Katrina was the strongest hurricane that has ever been measured. The 2009 season was not destructive as the previous hurricanes


An ocean conveyor belt occurs when oceans absorb heat energy from the sun and later redistributes this energy to various places on the globe.


Ocean currents have an effect on the climate of a region. The relationship between ocean currents and climate is due to the fact that ocean currents help in stabilization of the global climate through ocean processes such ocean conveyor belts.

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