Public Health

Public Health

Questions and answers for the task

  1. You are interested in knowing whether or not indoor radon exposure is associated with lung cancer. You design a __________ study consisting of patients with lung
    cancer and neighborhood matched controls. You then collected radon levels in the
    households of each case and control and classify the level as “elevated” or “not elevated” according to a standard definition


A.The most applicable type of study design is cross-sectional study since the research is interested in finding out whether or not indoor radon exposure is associated with lung cancer. With this in mind, cross-sectional study fits into the research since it is the study design that describe or look at the absence or presence of a disease, symptoms, or an exposure.

  1. In this context, the most applicable measure of association that one would be applicable is estimating or approximating the results. In this case, the best option would be obtaining a sample from the population randomly selected (i.e. the disease status or without the exposure) and afterwards assigning the samples into different categories such as (not exposed+no disease or not exposed+disease). In so doing, one can estimate the incidence risk.



  1. In a ________ study, investigators compared the effect of pentoxifylline versus
    placebo on survival in patients with HIV/AIDS who were also treated with standard
    antiretroviral therapy?


  1. The type of study design is the cross-sectional survey since it is the study, which examines the disease and the possible outcome of the treatment in a defined population. It is most applicable when comparing the effect of different therapy on patients as indicated in this research.
  2. The measure of association I would use is measuring the exposure along with the outcome of the therapy at the same time. It would best quantify the prevalence of the disease and highlight the accuracy of the therapy.
  1. In studying coffee and pancreatic cancer, you discover that coffee is associated
    with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. During the study, you also collected
    information about cigarette use, alcohol use, and vitamin use


  1. This type of study design is the descriptive study since it describes the frequency or the possible determinant of the condition. As indicated, this research collects more information related to coffee and pancreatic cancer from different angels.
  2. The measure of association I would use is observation in, which I would describe the patterns of the disease incidence in relation to various variable such as time, place, and a person.
  3. I would be content to report the information as valid since I would provide results that describe the patterns of the disease and other factors relating to the collected information.
  1. In a _______ study of women 45 – 65 years old, you intend to study the risk for
    coronary heart disease. After a detailed intake interview and examination that
    included an electrocardiogram and echocardiography, you enroll women without
    evidence for coronary artery disease. Your hypothesis is that women who eat fish are less likely to develop coronary heart disease as indicated by heart attack.


  1. The type of study design is case-control study since it provides a brief overview of patients with specific outcome of the impact of fish on decreasing coronary heart disease.
  2. The measure of association I would use is, considering the appropriate option of controls to determine whether the subject is exposed under investigation. Having in mind selection of the group may be difficult, I would carefully carry data effectively and accurately to avoid potential bias.
  1. In traditional case- control studies, why is the odds ratio used instead of a relative risk? Hint: Can incidence be measured in a case- control design?

The odds ratio is used instead of relative risk because the former can be used to evaluate the relative risk of the disease (Katz, 2010). The odds ratios are best used since they can be modified to access accurate estimate of the disease occurrence. Still, the incidence can be measured in case-control design when odd ratios are used instead of a relative risk.



  1. Is it possible to conduct a ‘retrospective’ randomized clinical trial? Briefly explain your answer.

It is possible to conduct a “retrospective” randomized clinical trial because, randomized trial is viewed as a valuable element for clinical investigation. Randomized clinical trial is important since it determines the best or preferred treatment convenient to the patient.



Katz, M. H. (2010). Evaluating clinical and public health interventions: A practical guide to study design and statistics. Cambridge: New York.



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