Critique of Quantitative Methods Journal Paper

Critique of Quantitative Methods Journal Paper


            Most organisations currently are facing stiff competition within the market as a result of emergency of many competitors. In order to overcome stiff competition challenges, organisations, through their respective management must ensure that they become and remain more innovative as revealed by Aalbers et al (2013, p624). Therefore, an organisation’s innovations should be realized through the creation of an effective internal and external communication, production of quality products and services, putting in place effective strategies to counter various challenges of the organisation and having useful approaches of responding to the rapid technological advancement (Aalbers et al, 2013, p624). Based on the importance of developing better innovation within organisations in response to competitive market dilemmas, the journal research paper by Aalbers et al (2013, p624-634) focuses on the importance of information knowledge and information transfer within the organisation. This concern of information and knowledge passing within various organisations has come into being due to failure by the organisations to make this information available to users despite being passed within their working premises. Aalbers et al (2013, p624) also revealed that the process of innovation require better understanding and motivation of persons involve in the transfer of information. This literature material also provides various approaches, challenges and theories of innovation and motivation processes towards ensuring effective knowledge passing in dealing with marketing challenges.

Theories of Innovation and Motivation in relation to Knowledge Passing

            In the process of initiating effective knowledge passing within the organisation to deal with challenges of stiff competitive within the market, organisations are required to understand various theories of innovation and motivation. According to the definition provided by Cherry (2013, p1), motivation is defined as forces that are responsible for the inanition, guiding and maintaining objective oriented characteristics depending on their social, biological and emotional nature. There exist various innovation and motivation theories. For instance, Cherry (2013, p1) revealed that the first theory of innovation and motivation is the instinct theory, which is the theory control individuals to behave in certain ways. For instance, individuals may fail to pass important information to their colleagues within the organisation simply because they are not motivated to do so.

Another innovation and motivation theory that organisations need to consider in enforcing effective communication and knowledge passing is the incentive theory. According to Cherry (2013, p1), incentive theory of motivation only operate when people are encouraged to perform certain duties and get something in return. Therefore, for effective knowledge passing to be realized within an organisation, leaders should provide rewards to their employees. The other form of motivation suggested by Cherry (2013, p1) is the drive theory of motivation. This form of theory required that people performed actions to reduce tension within their working premises. Additionally, the last two theories are the arousal and humanistic theories of motivation as provided by Cherry (2013, p1).  The practice of arousal theory is to reduce and increase arousal levels while the humanistic theory operates based on strong believes that one can perform certain actions.

The use of the above theories within organisations was to encourage members of the organisation to work together towards the objectives of the organisation. It is through the use of these theories that managers and other organisational leaders have embraced towards development and growth of their organisation. According to Borgatti and Halgin (2011, p.1169), theories of innovation and motivation help organisations to create effective communication, better relations and coordination among organisational workers. Consequently, effective application and use of the innovation and motivation theories has also helped organisations in developing better strategies in dealing with marketing challenges. For instance, through effective teamwork and employees’ motivation, organisations have produced quality and better services to their customers. Through quality production and better service delivery, these organisations have attracted and maintain their customers despite the existence and emergence of new competitors in the market as found by Burgess (2005, p.325). Through the research investigation conducted by Aalbers et al (2013, p624-634), the above theories are supported to be the best solution towards effective communication within an organisation as far as marketing challenges are concerned.

Quantitative Methods and Analysis


            Based on the information provided through the research conducted by Aalbers et al (2013, p624-634), two hypothesis have been used to explain various ways in which organisations may apply the use of effective communication and knowledge passing within their organisations. These include the hypothesis that states that the connection of an individual knowledge transfer is based on the level of intrinsic motivation and the number of persons with full motivation is influenced by extrinsic motivation. Through these hypothesis, organisations are in better position of overcoming various marketing challenges as provided by Aalbers et al (2013, p624). One of the suggestions that organisations need to put into consideration towards effective communication within a multi-structured organisation is the creation of individual awareness in order for the organisation to avoid limitations on the process knowledge passing. Therefore, leaders of the respective organisations need to ensure that they provide better motivation and innovation process that would help in awareness on the importance of information knowledge within the organisation by members of the organisation as echoed by Aalbers et al (2013, p625).

It is also important for organisational leaders to understand that individual motivation is one of the major factors in ensuring effective communication and knowledge transfer within an organisation. Moreover, it is through individual motivation that organisations are able determine and achieve the success of information passing within firms. Therefore, it is important for organisational leaders to motivate their employees by understanding their desire and response to the motivation and innovation processes used Aalbers et al (2013, p625). Consequently, lack of motivation among organisational workers would; therefore, means that the process of information and knowledge passing would be hindered as motivation is considered as the hub of learning and information communication. In ensuring effective information and knowledge communication in dealing with marketing challenges as realized through the use of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation approaches, organisational leaders are advised not to ignore these factors. For instance, through the use of extrinsic motivation approach, organisational leaders are required to focus on the objectives of the organisation. Therefore, they will be required to come up with better motivation approaches that would create better communication process based on the plans and objectives of the organisation. The use of intrinsic motivation is also another motivation approach that leaders should embrace towards ensuring effective communication within and outside the organisation Aalbers et al (2013, p626). Therefore, through the application of the above hypothesis, organisations will have effective approaches towards effective knowledge passing in dealing with marketing challenges.

Study Design and Samples

            The study and design of the research study is based on two main areas, organisational setting and the process that was used in collecting the required data and information as provided by Aalbers et al (2013, p627). During the research study, two distinct organisations were selected and data collecting on various communication and communication approaches used by the organisations were studied. Two different organisations were selected in order to determine the level of innovation and motivation that different firms are using in ensuring effective knowledge transfer within organisations (Gulati and Puranam, 2009, p.440). The two organisations that were selected for the research are the Alpha and Beta companies, both situated in Europe. According to Aalbers et al (2013, p627), Alpha organisation has a unit structure, which s compost of responsibility and autonomy as defined for different units within the organisation that are structured based on segmentation of the product-market. Similarly, headquarters of Beta organisation was studied just like the Alpha organisation and data required was collected from selected individuals. Although Alpha organisation also had a unit structured system, Beta had a complex system.

Another study design used by Aalbers et al (2013, p628) was data collection process. During the research period, data and information from both companies on social relationship from the selected persons were gathered. In order for a uniform collection of data to be reached at, a common definition of social network was used. Aalbers et al (2013, p628) revealed that one of the methods of data collection that was used is interview. Through interview as a method of data collection, both managers and selected individuals were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. Based on interview as a method of data collection, it was conducted through snowball methodology, which was done based on various surveying and interviews on the selected group (Foss et al, 2009, p.880).

Measurement – Independent, Dependent and Control Variables

            Input for individuals who were responsible for innovation and motivation of networking with the selected organisations were collected based on variables. Similarly, the measurement of the level of innovation and motivation was measured and determined through asking of relevant questions and recording of responses for each question for a particular individual (Aalbers et al, 2013, p628). Therefore, the measurement innovation among the target group was based on independent, dependent and control variables measurement. For instance, personal connectedness was measured based on closeness of individual centrality (Foss, 2007, p.30). The use of closeness was chosen because it is more accurate as compared to other methods of measuring innovation and motivation as far as knowledge passing is concerned. Moreover, measurement was done based on independent variables. These variables were based on both extrinsic and intrinsic approaches of motivation through the use of work preference inventory. Additionally, measurement was done through the use of control variables (Aalbers et al, 2013, p629). The use of control variables were based on individual tenure, number of ties and unit membership. Therefore, various analyses that touch in closeness on networking were control through cross unit ties.

Reliability and Validity

            Reliability and validity of this research project is based on different data and information collected from two organisations. Through the information provided on the tables on the analysis and findings of the research study, it shows that data collection and analysis have higher chances of generating accurate results. Although these organisations have different approaches towards ensuring effective knowledge passing within their environs, the method of data collection being similarly as provided by Aalbers et al (2013, p629), its final result was accurate based on the comparison made and drawn for the analysis of data collected. Another area that defines the reliability and validity of the research is based on thorough analysis that was done on the data collected without comparing data from both sides. These data collected were analysed separately, which resulted to the production of accurate results.

Statistical Techniques used to Test the Hypotheses and Statistical Analysis and Findings

In order for accurate findings to be drawn from this research, statistical analyses through the use of tables were used to provide various outcome of the research (DeChurch and Marks, 2006, p.318). Through the analysis, both organisations, Alpha and Beta were analysed differently and findings sent to these organisations without comparing with the other organisation. Despite having different results at some given point due to different approaches in dealing with knowledge passing within these organisations, analysis of these organisations separately was to produce information on how different approaches affect the process of having effective innovation towards knowledge passing within organisations (Burt, 2005, p.124). Use of the actual data is also another technique that was used in this research investigation towards obtaining the final results. Information from each organisation was used to come up with findings from such organisation without using organisation information against the other. Hence, any findings obtained from the analysis only reflect results for the organisation where the data was obtained.


            Both findings from the two analyses shows that intrinsic and extrinsic innovation and motivation plays an important role in ensuring effective knowledge passing within different organisation. These are based on individual understanding and motivation among these organisational workers. For instance, according to the findings that was got from the analysis of Alpha organisation, exchange of knowledge and information within organisation can only be achieved through individual motivation (Cabrera, 2006, p.253). Therefore, in order for organisations to achieve effective knowledge passing within their environment, they need to understand these approaches in order to come up with better ways of overcoming their marketing challenges.


            In the process of determining the level of knowledge passing within the organisation, organisational leaders need to understand that effective knowledge communication can only be achieved through individual motivation. Additionally, they need to consider various factors such as extrinsic and intrinsic motivation so as to understand their workers in order to determine appropriate approaches of motivation them. Moreover, various challenges that may hinder effective communication within organisations also need to be considered.




Aalbers, R., Dolfsman, W., Koppius, O., 2013. Individual connectedness innovation networks: On the role of individual motivation. Research Policy, 42(2013), p. 624-634.

Borgatti, S.P., Halgin, D.S., 2011. On Network Theory. Organization Science 22 (5), 1168–1181.

Burgess, D., 2005. What motivates employees to transfer knowledge outside their work unit? Journal of Business Communication 42, 324–348.

Burt, R.S., 2005. Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cabrera, A., Collins, W.C., Salgado, J.F., 2006. Determinants of individual engagement in knowledge sharing. International Journal of Human Resource Management 17, 245–264.

Cherry, K., 2013. Theories of Motivation. [online] Available at: [Accessed 15 November 2013].

DeChurch, L.A., Marks, M.A., 2006. Leadership in multi-team systems. Journal of Applied Psychology 91, 311–329.

Foss, N.J., 2007. The emerging knowledge governance approach: challenges and characteristics. Organization Science 14, 29–52.

Foss, N.J., Minbaeva, D.B., Pedersen, T., Reinholt, M., 2009. Encouraging knowledge sharing among employees: how job design matters. Human Resource Management 48, 871–893.

Gulati, R., Puranam, P., 2009. Renewal through reorganization: The value of inconsistencies between formal and informal organization. Organization Science 20 (2), 422–440.


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