Organization Theory – Multi Perspectives
Multi perspective approach is effective in management because it fosters the understanding of different operations and avenues providing one with essential for improving organization’s performance. The initial application of the approach in organizations traces back to period of historical management where practitioners utilized scientific administration in managing societies. Large-scale organizations pioneered the utilization of multi perspective approach in management. Such organizations ensured that their strategies emphasized effectiveness, efficiency in handling people. However, the basics and interactions have enhanced the introduction of modernism, post-modernism and interpretive organizational based perceptions. Consequently, application of multi perspective approach in organizations has many benefits as demonstrated by various successful organizations including McDonalds among others.
Organization Theory – Multi Perspectives
In the contemporary society, application of multi-perspective approach in organizations is imperative because it enhances many functional cues that enhance performance. For example, the model has enabled McDonalds to become effective in different areas including customer services and in improving the quality of their products making it fit in the modern society. The model has also enabled the firm work well in the postmodern applications especially in the planning activities and events that are to be hosted by the company (Bolman & Deal, 2003 p. 37). The scheme is also effective in making organizational decisions in economic and social concerns by making management embrace diverse perspectives (Bradford & Burke, 2005 p. 132).
Multi-perspective approach entails diverse perspectives, which are essential in the performance of any given organization. Initially, there is the modernist perspective, which draws most of its attention on the essence and value of modern principles to enhance the success and performance of an organization. For example, the perspective has theories and practices of the public relationships that encourage modernist appreciation of organizations. The scheme also provides an alternative to theoretical approach of relations in communities enabling them understand the privileges of management perspectives. As a modern concept, the perspective does not allow managers to be rational individuals with the powers to determine the outcomes of organizations by setting strategies. Therefore, the perspective is encouraging the examination of modernist public relations to act as a hegemonic practice that include practitioners in their system to legitimize perspectives as corporate leaders (Wheatley, Griffin, Quade & the National OD Network, 2003 p. 211).
In addition to the modern based theory initiated by the Disney as storytelling, the model fosters the organization where the active-reactive interplay of modern and postmodern discourse happens. This allows introduction of modern analysis within the multiple discourse, which enhance creation of marginalized voices where the Disney team gets experience on how they can accept organizational changes effectively. This can be through accepting it in adjacent manner, which enhance modern, interpretive, postmodern theory and the future studies for the benefit of the organization (Bolman & Deal, 2003 p. 37).
Modernization has some theoretical implications because it encompasses both system and critical theory. Consequently, this makes the modernists to have varying concepts regarding power and control. They enhance this by drawing their focus on the distribution of power within an organization as well as the ways of managing conflict and resistance to authority within an organization. Modernization also ensures that it improves efficiency and effectiveness in an organization because it believes that authority and the application of power is essential in the attainment of organizational power. Therefore, modernists advocates for organizational studies so that organizational authorities can get the best knowledge on how to apply authority and power in an organization. The modernist theories emphasize on rules, regulations and formalized procedures. In addition, the major aim of the theories in modernism is to investigate on the truth governing the organization. These might include accounting for organizational properties, keeping away from destructions originating from spectators and possessing instrumental values among others. Consequently, this is imperative to organizations because by knowing the truth, they can formulate and accomplish their organizational goals. The theories also encourage an innovative organization for the required discoveries and innovations within an organization and raise the consciousness of members. Finally, it encourages more equal and democratic organization, which improves production in an organization.
Notably, there is symbolic-interpretive perspective, which is significant to organizations because it enable them understand different ways in which culture issues can be interpreted using social construction. This supports organizations in establishing institutional orders that define the exchanges amongst the actors of the organization from its condition. Interestingly, many organizations prefer applying this perspective in their management because it supports them in resembling sense-giving battle, where the actors have interest of restoring decisive orders by applying a unique solution together with the preferences on certain situation (Cummings & Worley, 2005 p. 27). However, the perspective believes in the fact that management of any organization act toward any given situation basing its concepts on elements that contributes to the team, which is derived from social interaction among employees in an organization. Furthermore, organizations prefer this perspective because they believe that participating in social interaction through making indications to self and responding to those indications enhances the interpretation process fostering actions. This is because the perspective asserts that the world of reality exists in accordance to the interpretation and understanding of individuals and this world exist within the experience of humanity (Harvey, 2005 p. 127).
Applying change within interpretive symbol perspective fosters reciprocal relationship, which is vital to the changes in structure as mediated by organizational actions created by its members and the ways in which they react to the change. This includes the manner in which organization members interprets religious meetings and its affect on phenomenon in the organizational leadership. However, it also examines how leaders respond to such situations. However, the perspective claims that organizations can face different symbolic encounters during their adaption to varying environments and when rethinking of their opportunities. The organizations might also be forced to consider the roles of their strategic managers to becoming interpretive in both their nature and meaning. The perspective makes the model of organizational culture as symbols and process, because it has different ideas drawn from symbolic perspective. These might include symbols such as cultural dynamics, articulating realization, interpretation and offering framework of the organization and its culture. Concurrently, there is an involvement of culture within the organizational symbolism, because most of organizational work draws attention organizational symbolism. In respect to this, most organizational work focuses on the assumption of the nature of their culture cues and organization, evaluation of authority and shortfalls of culture (Schein, 2004 p. 214).
Remarkably, post-modern perspective is also part of multi-perspective approach. This perspective acts as a salient picture with high links between modernism and interpretive views, thus insisting on the relevance of symbolic, cultural elements created by the world and the organizational believes. This is because such things depend on the social situation and location of an organization. Currently, many organizations are incorporating this perspective in their operations, which is essential in increasing productivity. Additionally, many proponents have been supporting the relevance of applying post-modernist in organizations and other social systems. This is because most organizations acts as products of labor, therefore, the perspective acts as an essential function in explaining and justifying the different structures that those organizations represent. This implies that its major concern is to maintain consistency and stability in the organized world rather than critical understanding. Interestingly, the term post-modernist perspective is extremely common in debates that different organizations conduct as they interpret it as a paradigm of both structural and cultural based thought. This makes organizations to assert that post-modernism perspective is vital in the increasing competition because it fosters thinking methods, which helps organizations to implement constructive decisions. It also enhances the existence of social entities and attributes in modernistic problems as well as offering modernistic thought styles basing on strong ontology. Organizations should also note that if they adopt postmodern way of thinking, they would face radical effects, which will be relevant in rethinking organization studies. On the contrary, instead of organizations drawing much of their attention on traditional methods such as organizational forms and attributes, they should focus on the significance of examining local assemblages of social reality (Galbraith, 2001 p. 132).
Advantages of multi-perspective approach
Applying multi-perspective approach in the world of work is more advantageous compared to other methods. This is because the contemporary society is extremely complex. Interestingly, even though the world has been undergoing different transformations in varying sectors such as technology and creation of wealth, it is still facing some challenges, which makes problems to persist in some areas. For example, the ecosystem is facing much destruction, which is creating disparities making some cases to seem unstoppable. Therefore, this implies that it is relevant to create an environment, which will draw attention on environmental integrity, social equity, cultural diversity and economic justice. In order to attain such environment, it is vital for the citizens together with leaders to comprehend the complexity and be willing to work with complexity. Concurrently, these complexities entail the application of tools such as multi-perspective approach, because it is capable of helping different individuals understand and employ complexity in their work. This is because each members of the team does not only contribute towards disciplinary knowledge but they also bring perspectives and insights that come with the study and the practice of the discipline (Andriani, 2005 p. 258).
Remarkably, the approach can highly benefit organizations if they apply it because it has the overall task of managing different processes in an organization. It further encourages development of new knowledge through integration and adaptation of changes. The approach also ensures that it identifies requirements and social complexities. Therefore, organizations should note that it is essential for them to integrate multi-perspective approach in their operations because it enhances organizational complexity in their organizations as well as encouraging and improving the floor of knowledge within the complex environment of their organizations. In the organizational perspective, it is imperative to consider the strategic plan, policy, governance, resources and the performance of an organization. Additionally, the knowledge perspective ensures that the information is relevance; it flows and encourages communication in the organization (Burke & Bradford, 2005 p.78). However, the perspective states that the collaborative common framework should improve the decision-making process and enhance knowledge management. Concurrently, it supports a business perspective, which promotes business activity, business plan, and business culture and business objectives. The perspective also supports social perspective to conduct its roles, responsibilities and public interest. Consequently, this makes multi-perspective approach to be of great benefit to organizations because when organizations practice the highlighted factors, they will be in a position to increase on their productivity. The approach will also allow organizations to understand the manner in which things are currently affecting their strategic direction. Interestingly, this will contribute towards organizational learning process, which will be relevant in the enterprise relationship. The perspective is essential to organizations because it ensures that there is good interaction between organizational unit and their activities (Andriani, 2005 p. 256).
The approach is also important to the society, schools and research among others. For example, much of the problems in the society highly rely on empirical evidence, which originates from the scientific research. However, when the society applies the perspective in their daily life, they will be willing to learn more skills, which are vital in different societal situations. The perspective is beneficial to students because it enable them adapt a way of thinking applied by people around the world that enables them handle life challenges (Deal & Kennedy, 2000 p. 36).
Disadvantages of multi-perspective approach
According to the criticisms of multi-perspective approach, this method has been under rejections from the workers who claim that it is more tiresome because it requires one to have much skills and knowledge. The approach is also time consuming because it entails collection of more data and greater planning in order to be successful, and sometimes it becomes difficult because resources are not always available to lead the organizations. However, the approach is expensive making it not affordable to every organization and this makes such organization to apply traditional methods, which negatively affect organizational performances. Additionally, multi-perspective approach aims at improving the collaborative process and this means that the process requires the implementation of innovative solutions to complex issues. However, it is possible that these effectiveness can b limited if there will be no tools of improving the collaboration amongst different dimensions of perspective from theoretical to the practice. Consequently, this can have a negative effect on the performance of organizations (Andriani, 2005 p. 257).
The study focused on the advantages and disadvantages of multi-perspective approach in organizations. Compared to other methods involved in multi-perspective approach; postmodern perspective is highly effective because it encourages different types of logical commitments and theoretical preoccupations. However, symbolic perspective is central to all management perspectives because it has conceptual positions of both the modernism and postmodernism perspective. Furthermore, postmodern perspective highlights the social life within the paradox and indeterminacy; thus discouraging organizational agents from assuming central rational control. This brings out different views of organizations in modernist model because it becomes a social tool as well as an extension of human rationality. Finally, postmodern perspective highlight that most organizations tend to be less expressive of the planned thought and calculative actions.
Andriani, P. 2005. “Diversity, Knowledge and Complexity Theory: Some introductory issues”, International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 5, No. 2 (June 2001) pp. 257–274.
Bolman, L. and Deal, T. 2003. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership third edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bradford, D. and Burke, W. 2005. “The Future of OD?” in D. L. Bradford and W. W. Burke (eds.). Reinventing Organization Development: New Approaches to Change in Organizations. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Burke, W. and Bradford, D. 2005. “The Crisis of OD” in D. L. Bradford and W. W. Burke (eds.). Reinventing Organization Development: New Approaches to Change in Organizations. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Cummings, T. and Worley, C. 2005. Organization Development and Change (sixth edition). Cincinnati: South Western.
Deal, T. and Kennedy, A. 2000. Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Galbraith, J. 2001. Designing Organizations: An Executive Briefing on Strategy, Structure, and Process (second edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Harvey, J. 2005. “The Future of OD, or Why Don=t They Take the Tubes out of Grandma?” in D. L. Bradford and W. W. Burke (eds.). Reinventing Organization Development: New Approaches to Change in Organizations. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Schein, E. 2004. Organizational Culture and Leadership (third edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wheatley, M., Griffin, P., Quade, K., and the National OD Network 2003. Organization Development at Work : Conversations on the Values, Applications, and Future of OD. San Francisco: Pfeiffer
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