Question: What effects did the Beer Hall Putsch have on the Nazi Party?
The Beer Hall Putsch was a unsuccessful endeavor during revolution, which happened at 1923 November. It is a time when Adolf Hitler led the Nazi party failed in attaining power in Munich. He attempted to seize German Weimar Republic and initiate right wing nationalism. The Beer Hall Putsch was an opportunity for Hitler to expose his political ideologies. Besides, it enhanced the influence of Hitler and aided in the growth of Nazi party. Hitler commanded Nazi soldiers referred to as storm troopers to meet up with powerful political officials at beer hall, Munich, Germany staging a trial to conquer power over Bavarian government (MobileReference, 2005).
They utilized Munich beer hall, Bürgerbräukeller to demonstrate their rebel for the Wilmer Republic political leadership with the help of SA officials timely when von Kahr was addressing three thousand individuals. At the time the hall was guarded by six hundred SA with a machine gun towards the auditorium entry. Hitler and his partners were able to pass through maintaining that “The national revolution has broken out! The hall is filled with six hundred men. Nobody is allowed to leave. The Bavarian government and the government at Berlin are deposed. A new government will be formed at once. The barracks of the Reichswehr and those of the police are occupied. Both have rallied to the swastika” (Lemons, 2005). He demanded the support of Von Kahr, Von Lossow and Von Seisser at gun point but von Kahr could not cooperate and this annoyed Hitler. This was irrespective of being offered a senior position if he would cooperate, but this did not intimidate him. In the hall, no person could move out as they were advised to calm down. Hitler addressed the crowd stating that von Kahr had supported him but this was not the case, which altered their attitudes immediately while maintaining that he was not opposed to von Kahr. The government officials were confused not to mention the loyalty of the citizens (Evans, 2004).
The Nazi party was growing rapidly but it was just considered as one of the right wing parties in the nation prior to the events at Beer Hall Putsch. Hitler utilized his wrath towards yhe Berlin Government. His followers by then were few but he relied on Munich citizens although it did not materialize. On this particular day the Bavarian Gustav Kahr, the Prime Minister, had been addressing prominent personnel at the beer hall. Hitler and the six hundred SA stormed the meeting. Once it was over, Hitler had not realized his error in letting von Kahr and his associates to go free since they reported the incidence. The central government demanded the arrest of the Nazi but this did not intimidate Hitler who hoped that his appealing to the political and armed forces would win their trust and that of the Nazi party to demonstrate against oppressive leadership of the central government.
Besides, he felt courageous since Luderndorff was leading the demonstration thus, was hopeful that they wouldn’t be fired since Luderndorff was a popular war hero. On his march to the central Munich together with the three thousand followers they were confronted with armed forces and police who fired shots killing 16 Nazi and 3 police officers while Hitler suffered an upset shoulder. He escaped the scene but was arrested after two days and accused of high treason and a five years imprisonment. The Monarchists were accused of trying to seize power from Bavarian government. He used the trial to state his good intentions and his political ideas, which was publicized in the newspapers, as the initial exposure to a national wide responsiveness and propaganda. His trial impressed the judge who reduced the sentence to eight months. As a result, Hitler’s party became even more popular as the sixteen deaths referred to as “blood martyrs” and imprisonment comprised of the Nazi propaganda. If this did not occur, he and his Nazi party would remain unpopular (Scheck, 1998).
Regarding the events, different perspectives have been aired regarding the political situation in Germany. According to Hodge, he terms the event as ‘dustbin of history’ if Hitler did not acquire the leadership (2010). Sarat on the other hand maintains that it initiated a period of ritualized violence on the political rivals “designed to symbolize threat and retaliation, shaming and degradation, and demoralizing of enemies (Sarat, 2009 p.31). It marked the period of military dictatorship as Ludendorff got involved with the National Socialist on a weak relationship which was marked by ideological ambiguities. Ludendorff reflected the opinions of paramilitary groups thus were involved with Hitler whom he thought had political knowledge, rhetorical skills and a propaganda expert to attract the masses (Lemons, 2005). Hitler “was a master of rhetoric supportive of a sentimentalized view of order and control and brilliant street tactician of chaos and the timing of it…he utilized encoded presentations that promised a new ethical and moral order whose long-term aim was racial genocide” (Sarat, 2009 p. 34)
While in Landsberg prison, Hitler reconsidered his political motives and decided to operate within legal limits or constitutional means and not seizing power from the Wilmer Republic by creation of a political party to run for elections. Besides, the party was outlawed in Bavaria although its involvement in elections in nineteen twenty four was renamed as National Socialist Freedom Movement (NSFB). On the other hand, the Germans voted for the party during the elections in May, nineteen twenty four but lost eighteen seats in December the same year. The Nazi Party (NSDAP) was not doing well politically having few votes in three years. As a result, Hitler saw the need to inform the Germans of his political motives, which led to his authoring the Zweites Buch (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2006). As a result, the SA considered communist aspects where during March 1929 there was a representation of the party for presidential vote by Erich Ludendorff although he lost greatly.
The party involved in violent counterattacks, they were outlawed and consequently the party acquired much victory in Germany with much financial costs incurred during the campaigns. To oppose the legal backdrop the SA initiated anti-Jewish exploitation. Nazism characterized by mass demonstrations was taking over the control of the nation irrespective of divided loyalty from the Germans. It was the main political party in German Reichstag but had no majority votes, thus Hitler could not become a chancellor although the authoritarian system worked to his advantage becoming a chancellor. Eventually, they seized control over the society between 1931 and 1933 and initiated dictatorial control, which is regarded as a period of totalitarian rule for 12 years (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2006).
In conclusion, leadership was crucial irrespective of it being good or bad as demonstrated by the totalitarian leadership of the Nazi regime. Most importantly, it modified politics of the 20th century. It led to the shift in politics opting for democracy while the monarchies collapsed.
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